by Marion Nestle
Feb 12 2016

Five more studies related to food-industry sponsorship. The score: 124/12

I’m having a hard time keeping up with these, but here are five more industry-funded studies with results favorable to the sponsor, bringing the total of industry-positives to 124 since last March, versus just 12 with unfavorable results.  This percentage is lower than that found in more systematic studies.  If you know of such studies, please send.

In the meantime, here’s the next set.

A randomized controlled trial to determine the efficacy of a high carbohydrate and high protein ready-to-eat food product for weight loss.  N. R. Fuller, M. Fong, J. Gerofi, L. Leung, C. Leung, G. Denyer andI. D. Caterson.  Clinical Obesity. Article first published online: 19 JAN 2016. DOI: 10.1111/cob.12137

  • Conclusion: There was no significant difference in percentage weight loss from screening to 6 weeks between the two groups…Both diets were nutritionally matched and well-accepted over the 6-week period. This study shows that the inclusion of a ready-to-eat food product can be included as part of a dietary programme to achieve a clinically significant weight loss over a short period.
  • Funding: This study was supported by a research grant from Arnotts Biscuits Ltd. The funder had no role in the protocol design, the conduct of the study, the analysis of the data, nor the writing of the manuscript.
  • Comment: The idea of this study was to get participants to include Vita-Weat biscuits in their diets.  The control group was simply advised about healthy eating.  Both groups lost weight.  Arnotts Biscuits makes Vita-Weat.

Obesity, Fitness, Hypertension, and Prognosis: Is Physical Activity the Common Denominator?  Carl J. Lavie, MD, Parham Parto, MD; Edward Archer, PhD. JAMA Intern Med. 2016;176(2):217-218. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2015.7571.

  • Conclusions: Although excess caloric load has been suggested as a major contributor to obesity, we believe that marked declines during the past 5 decades in leisure time and occupational physical activity explain the notable increase in BMI over time… Therefore, substantial efforts are needed, beginning in children and adolescents and extending into adulthood, to increase levels of physical activity across all ages and in both sexes, which would have substantial effects on preventing obesity and improving levels of CRF [cardiorespiriatory fitness].
  • Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Lavie reported being the author of the book The Obesity Paradox and serving as a lecturer for the Coca Cola Company (on physical activity, exercise, fitness, and the obesity paradox and not on their products). Dr Archer reported received speaking fees from industry and nonprofit organizations.
  • Comment: Coca-Cola has been especially active in funding investigators who promote the idea that physical activity is more important that diet in determining health status.  This paper is a commentary on a study demonstrating that “high BMI and low aerobic capacity in late adolescence were associated with higher risk of hypertension in adulthood…interventions to prevent hypertension should begin early in life and include not only weight control but aerobic fitness, even among persons with normal BMI.”

Dietary anthocyanin intake and age-related decline in lung function: longitudinal findings from the VA Normative Aging Study.  Amar J Mehta,, Aedín Cassidy, Augusto A Litonjua, David Sparrow, Pantel Vokonas, and Joel Schwartz.  Am J Clin Nutr February 2016 vol. 103 no. 2 542-550

  • Conclusions: An attenuation of age-related lung function decline was associated with higher dietary anthocyanin intake in this longitudinal sample of predominantly elderly men. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these novel associations.
  • Conflicts: AC has a grant, unrelated to this project, to conduct observational and experimental studies of blueberries and cardiovascular health outcomes from the US Highbush Blueberry Council. None of the other authors had competing interests to declare.
  • Comment:  This paper is about blueberry anthocyanins.  The authors report “Blueberry intake was associated with the slowest rate of annual decline in lung function; compared with no or very low intake.”

The effects of lutein on cardiometabolic health across the life course: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  Elisabeth TM Leermakers, Sirwan KL Darweesh, Cristina P Baena, Eduardo M Moreira, Debora Melo van Lent, Myrte J Tielemans, Taulant Muka, Anna Vitezova, Rajiv Chowdhury, Wichor M Bramer, Jessica C Kiefte-de Jong, Janine F Felix, and Oscar H Franco.  Am J Clin Nutr February 2016 vol. 103 no. 2 481-494

  • Conclusions: Our findings suggest that higher dietary intake and higher blood concentrations of lutein are generally associated with better cardiometabolic health. However, evidence mainly comes from observational studies in adults, whereas large-scale intervention studies and studies of lutein during pregnancy and childhood are scarce.
  • Funding: ETML, DMvL, MJT, JCK-dJ, and OHF are employees at ErasmusAGE, a center for aging research across the life course funded by Nestlé Nutrition (Nestec Ltd.), Metagenics Inc., and AXA. Nestlé Nutrition (Nestec Ltd.), Metagenics Inc., and AXA had no role in the design or conduct of the study; the collection, management, analysis, or interpretation of the data; or the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript. None of the authors reported a conflict of interest related to the study.

Dietary protein intake is associated with body mass index and weight up to 5 y of age in a prospective cohort of twins.  Laura Pimpin, Susan Jebb, Laura Johnson, Jane Wardle, and Gina L Ambrosini.  First published December 30, 2015, doi: 10.3945/​ajcn.115.118612.  Am J Clin Nutr February 2016 vol. 103 no. 2 389-397

  • Conclusion: A higher proportion of energy from protein during the complementary feeding stage is associated with greater increases in weight and BMI in early childhood in this large cohort of United Kingdom children.
  • Conflicts: JW: was principal investigator of the Gemini study with responsibility for data collection; and all authors: advised on the analyses or interpretation of data and contributed to manuscript preparation. JW received grants from Cancer Research UK and from Danone Baby Nutrition during the conduct of the study. LJ received institutional consultancy fees from Danone Baby Nutrition during the conduct of the study. All other authors declared no conflicts of interest.
  • JW Ogden

    So it looks like 10% go against the company supporting the study. One might expect with no bias for 50% to go against he company supporting the study, but considering the choice of what studies to fund, one would expect even if the study is done without bias that more than much more than 50% would go the supporting companies way. So maybe they are not so bad. We should pay attention to them but just keep bias in mind.